Digestive system enzyme that breaks down starchy foods.
o-lizm) Energy-requiring building phase of metabo-
lism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex
er-ōb-ik) Not requiring oxygen.
ĭ-sis) Energy-yielding conversion of
glucose to lactic acid in various tissues, notably muscle, when suﬃcient
oxygen is not available.
Te point at which muscle metabolism converts to
Tird stage of mitosis, meiosis I, and meiosis II in which
daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell.
sis) A union or joining of nerves, blood
vessels, or lymphatics.
Study of the structure of living organisms.
dro-jen) A hormone such as testosterone that controls
male secondary sex characteristics.
me-ah) Reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood result-
ing from too few erythrocytes or abnormal hemoglobin.
u-rizm) Blood-ﬁlled sac in an artery wall caused by dila-
tion or weakening of the wall.
tor-is) Severe suﬀocating chest pain
caused by brief lack of oxygen supply to heart muscle.
sin) A potent vasoconstrictor activated by
renin; also triggers release of aldosterone.
i-on) An ion carrying one or more negative charges and
therefore attracted to a positive pole.
se-ah) Deﬁciency of oxygen.
o-nist) (1) Muscle that reverses, or opposes, the ac-
tion of another muscle. (2) Hormone that opposes the action of another
A protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daugh-
ter cell of an activated B lymphocyte) and that binds speciﬁcally to an
antigen; an immunoglobulin.
don) Te three-base sequence complementary to
the messenger RNA (mRNA) codon.
(ADH, also called vasopressin) (an
tik) Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the
posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reduc-
ing urine volume.
tĭ-jen) A substance or part of a substance (living or
nonliving) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system, activates
the immune system, and reacts with immune cells or their products.
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
A specialized cell (dendritic cell, mac-
rophage, or B cell) that captures, processes, and presents antigens on its
surface to ± lymphocytes.
kle-āt) A cell without a nucleus.
nus) Distal end of digestive tract; outlet of rectum.
tah) Major systemic artery; arises from the leF ventricle of
Receptor in the aortic arch sensitive to changing oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood.
Evaluation of an infant’s physical status at 1 and 5 minutes
aFer birth by assessing ﬁve criteria: heart rate, respiration, color, muscle
tone, and reﬂexes.
Te length of time a muscle can continue to con-
tract using aerobic pathways.
Respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glu-
cose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts
of A±P are the ﬁnal products.
er-ent) Carrying to or toward a center.
Aﬀerent (sensory) nerve
Nerve that contains processes of sensory neu-
rons and carries nerve impulses to the central nervous system.
shun) Clumping of (foreign) cells; induced
by cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes.
o-nist) Muscle that bears the major responsibility for eﬀect-
ing a particular movement; a prime mover.
Acquired immune deﬁciency syndrome; caused by human im-
munodeﬁciency virus (HIV); symptoms include severe weight loss, night
sweats, swollen lymph nodes, opportunistic infections.
min) Te most abundant plasma protein.
ter-ōn) Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex
that regulates Na
reabsorption and K
secretion by the kidneys.
tar-e) Te continuous hollow tube
extending from the mouth to the anus; its walls are constructed by
the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large
sis) State of abnormally low hydrogen ion concen-
tration in the extracellular ﬂuid.
to-is) Embryonic membrane; its blood vessels develop
into blood vessels of the umbilical cord.
Genes coding for the same trait and found at the same locus on
A type of hypersensitivity (overzealous immune response to an
otherwise harmless antigen) that involves IgE antibodies and histamine
Te most common type of secondary structure of the
amino acid chain in proteins; resembles the coils of a telephone cord.
Alveolar (acinar) gland
o-lar) A gland whose secretory cells form
small, ﬂasklike sacs.
Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)
An index of respiratory eﬃciency;
measures volume of fresh air that ﬂows in and out of alveoli.
o-lus) (1) One of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs;
(2) tiny milk-producing glandular sac in the breast; (3) tooth socket.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
hi-merz) Degenerative brain disease re-
sulting in progressive loss of memory and motor control, and increasing
no) Organic compound containing nitrogen, car-
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building block of protein.
Common waste product of protein breakdown in the
body; a colorless volatile gas, very soluble in water and capable of form-
ing a weak base; a proton acceptor.
A common form of fetal testing in which a small sample
of ﬂuid is removed from the amniotic cavity.
ne-on) ²etal membrane that forms a ﬂuid-ﬁlled sac around
boyd) Te ﬂowing movement of the cyto-
plasm of a phagocyte.
sis) A slightly movable joint.
lah) A localized dilation of a canal or duct.