Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Straw, yellow, amber
Fluid balance and renal function. Darker in dehydration. Lighter in
overhydration, diabetes insipidus. Color varies with disease states,
diet, and medications.
Metabolic function, infection. Abnormal odors in infection,
ketonuria, rectal ﬁstula, hepatic failure, phenylketonuria.
An indirect measurement of urine concentration (osmolality). Same
physiological indications and clinical implications as osmolality.
A crude indicator of acid-base balance. Decreased by acidic diet
(proteins). Increased by a vegetarian diet, prolonged vomiting, and
bacterial infection of the urinary tract.
Urobilinogen (24 h)
Liver function. Increased in hemolytic anemias, hepatitis, cirrhosis,
biliary disease. Decreased in common bile duct obstruction.
Volume (24 h)
800–2000 ml/24 h
(0.8–2.0 L/24 h)
Fluid and electrolyte balance, renal function. Increased values in
diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, renal disease. Decreased values
in dehydration, syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH),