Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
White blood cell
count, differential (WB)
Immune system integrity. Increased values in acute bacterial
infections, stress, Cushing's syndrome, inﬂammatory disorders,
ketoacidosis, gout. Decreased levels in aplastic anemia, bone
marrow suppression, and overwhelming bacterial infections.
Immune system integrity. Increased values in viral infections (e.g.,
mumps, rubella, infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis), lymphocytic
leukemia, certain bacterial infections. Decreased levels in leukemia,
immunodeﬁciency, lupus erythematosus, bone marrow depressive
Immune system integrity. Increased levels in allergic reactions,
parasitic infections, leukemia. Decreased levels in excess
Immune system integrity. Increased levels in certain infections (e.g.,
tuberculosis, malaria), inﬂammatory disorders.
Immune system integrity. Increased levels in myeloproliferative
disorders, leukemia. Decreased levels in allergic reactions,
Amylase (24 h)
6000 Somogyi units/24 h
0–500 U/24 h
(0–8.3 μkat/24 h)
Pancreatic function. Increased values in pancreatic disease or
obstruction, inﬂammation of the salivary glands, and cholecystitis.
Liver function. Increased values in liver disease, extrahepatic
obstruction (gallstones, tumor, inﬂammation).
Blood (hemoglobin) (random)
Urinary system function. Increased values in cystitis, renal disease,
hemolytic anemia, transfusion reaction, prostatitis, burns.
Osmolality (random or fasting)
Random: 50–1200 mOsm/kg H
(50–1200 mmol/kg H
850 mOsm/kg H
850 mmol/kg H
Fluid and electrolyte balance, renal function, and endocrine
function. Increased levels in hypernatremia, syndrome of
inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), congestive heart failure,
metabolic acidosis. Decreased levels in diabetes insipidus, water
intoxication, pyelonephritis, renal tubular necrosis, aldosteronism.
Phosphate (24 h)
0.9–1.3g/24 hr (same)
Parathyroid function. Increased levels in hyperparathyroidism,
osteomalacia, certain renal diseases, vitamin D deﬁciency.
Decreased levels in hypoparathyroidism.
Potassium (24 h)
25–120 mEq/24 h
(25–120 mmol/24 h)
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased values in renal tubular
necrosis, metabolic acidosis, dehydration, aldosteronism, Cushing's
syndrome. Decreased values in Addison's disease, malabsorption,
acute renal failure.
Renal function. Increased levels in nephrotic syndrome, renal
trauma, hyperthyroidism, diabetic nephropathy, systemic lupus
Sodium (24 h)
40–220 mEq/24 h
(40–220 mmol/24 h)
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased values in dehydration,
ketoacidosis, syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH),
adrenocortical insufﬁciency. Decreased levels in congestive heart
failure, renal failure, diarrhea, aldosteronism.
Uric acid (24 h)
250–750 mg/24 h
(1.5–4.5 mmol/24 h)
Renal function and metabolism. Increased in gout, leukemia, liver
disease, ulcerative colitis. Decreased in renal disease, alcoholism,
lead toxicity, folic acid deﬁciency.