Appendix F
Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
A-11
TEST (SAMPLE)
REFERENCE VALUES:
CONVENTIONAL (SI)
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Blood Chemistry Studies
(continued)
Protein (S)
Total
6.0–8.5 g/dl
(60–85 g/L) 
Osmotic pressure; immune system integrity. Increased values in
multiple myeloma, dehydration, myxedema. Decreased values in
protein malnutrition, burns, diarrhea, renal failure, liver failure. 
Albumin
3.2–5.0 g/dl
(32–50 g/L)
Osmotic pressure. Increased levels in dehydration. Decreased levels
in liver disease, malnutrition, Crohn's disease, nephrotic syndrome,
systemic lupus erythematosus.
Sodium (S)
135–145 mEq/L
(135–145 mmol/L)
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased values in dehydration,
diabetes insipidus, Cushing's syndrome. Decreased values
in vomiting, diarrhea, burns, Addison's disease, myxedema,
congestive heart failure, overhydration, syndrome of inappropriate
ADH secretion (SIADH).
Triglycerides
10–150 mg/dl
(0.1–1.5 g/L)
Increased values in diabetes mellitus, liver disease, nephrotic
syndrome, pregnancy.
Uric acid (S)
Female: 2.0–7.3 mg/dl
(119–434 μmol/L)
Male: 2.1–8.5 mg/dl
(125–506 μmol/L)
Renal function. Increased in lead poisoning, impaired renal
function, gout, alcoholism, hematologic cancers. Decreased in
Wilson's disease.
Hematology Studies
Hemoglobin (S)
Female: 12–16 g/dl
(120–160 g/L)
Male: 13–18 g/dl
(130–180 g/L)
Oxygenation status. Increased values in dehydration, polycythemia,
congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
high altitudes. Decreased levels in anemia, hemorrhage, bone
marrow cancer, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus,
nutritional deficiency.
Hematocrit (WB)
Female: 37–47% (same)
Male: 42–52% (same)
Oxygenation status. Increased levels in polycythemia, dehydration,
congestive heart failure, shock, surgery. Decreased levels in
anemia, hemorrhage, bone marrow disease, malnutrition, cirrhosis,
rheumatoid arthritis.
Partial thromboplastin time
(activated) (PTT or aPTT)
20–36 s (same)
Clotting mechanisms. Increased values in clotting factor
deficiencies, cirrhosis, vitamin K deficiency, disseminated
intravascular coagulation (DIC). Decreased values in early DIC,
extensive cancer.
Platelet count (WB)
150,000–400,000/μl
(150–400
3
10
9
/L)
Clotting mechanisms. Increased values in polycythemia, cancers,
rheumatoid arthritis, trauma. Decreased values in liver disease,
hemolytic uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular
coagulation (DIC), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP),
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Prothrombin time
(PT) (WB)
11–12.5 s (same)
1.5–2
3
control (evaluating
anticoagulant treatment)
Clotting mechanisms. Increased values in liver disease, vitamin K
deficiency, salicylate intoxication. Decreased values in disseminated
intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Red blood cell count
(RBC) (WB)
Female: 4.2–5.4 million/μl
(4.2–5.4
3
10
12
/L)
Male: 4.7–6.1 million/μl
(4.7–6.1
3
10
12
/L)
Oxygenation status. Increased values in high altitudes,
polycythemia, hemoconcentration, cor pulmonale. Decreased
values in hemorrhage, hemolysis, anemias, chronic illness,
nutritional deficiencies, leukemia, overhydration.
Reticulocyte count (WB)
0.5–2.0% (same)
Bone marrow function. Increased values in hemolytic anemia,
sickle-cell anemia, leukemia, pregnancy. Decreased values in
pernicious anemia, folic acid deficiency, cirrhosis, chronic infection,
bone marrow depression or failure.
White blood cell
count (WBC) (WB)
 
 
Total (males)
4800–10,800/μl
(4.8–10.8
3
10
9
/L)
Immune system integrity. Increased values in infection, trauma,
stress, tissue necrosis, inflammation. Decreased values in bone
marrow depression or failure, drug toxicity, overwhelming
infection, malnutrition.
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