A-10
Appendix F
Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
TEST (SAMPLE)
REFERENCE VALUES:
CONVENTIONAL (SI)
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Blood Chemistry Studies
(continued)
Gases (A)
Bicarbonate
22–26 mEq/L
(22–26 mmol/L)
 
Carbon dioxide content
Arterial: 19–24 mEq/L
(19–24 mmol/L)
Venous: 22–30 mEq/L
(22–30 mmol/L)
Acid-base balance. Increased values in metabolic alkalosis and
respiratory acidosis. Decreased values in metabolic acidosis and
respiratory alkalosis.
Carbon dioxide partial
pressure (P
CO2
)
Arterial: 35–45 mm Hg
Venous: 45 mm Hg
 
Oxygen (O
2
) saturation
95–98% (same)
Values increased slightly in hyperventilation. Decreased values
(hypoxia) in pulmonary disease, hypoventilation, high altitude.
Oxygen partial
pressure (P
O2
)
80–105 mm Hg 
pH
7.35–7.45 (same)
Increased values in metabolic and respiratory alkalosis. Decreased
values in metabolic and respiratory acidosis.
Glucose (S)
70–120 mg/dl
(3.9–6.7 mmol/L)
Metabolic function. Increased values in diabetes mellitus, Cushing's
syndrome, liver disease, acute stress, and acromegaly. Decreased
levels in Addison's disease, insulinomas.
Immunoglobulins (S)
IgG
560–1800 mg/dl
(5.6–18 g/L)
Immune response. Increased levels in chronic infections, rheumatic
fever, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis. Decreased levels in
amyloidosis, leukemia, and preeclampsia.
IgE
,
43.2 μg/dl
(
,
432 μg/L)
Allergic responses. Increased values in allergic responses. Decreased
values in agammaglobulinemia.
IgA
85–563 mg/dl
(0.85–5.6 g/L)
Immune integrity. Increased values in liver disease, rheumatic
fever, chronic infection, inflammatory bowel disease. Decreased
values in immunodeficiency disorders and immunosuppression.
IgM
55–375 mg/dl
(0.5–3.8 g/L)
Immune integrity. Increased in autoimmune disease (e.g.,
rheumatoid arthritis), acute infections. Decreased in amyloidosis
and leukemia.
IgD
0.5–14 mg/dl
(5–140 mg/L)
Immune integrity. Increased values in myelomas.
Ketone bodies (S or P)
Negative
Toxic level
.
20 mg/dl
(0.2 g/L)
Fatty acid catabolism. Increased values (ketosis, ketoacidosis) in
starvation, low-carbohydrate diet, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus,
aspirin overdose.
Lactate dehydrogenase
(LDH) (S)
105–333 U/L
(1.7–5.6 μkat/L)
Tissue damage of organs or striated muscle. Increased in
myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, liver disease,
cerebrovascular accident, infectious mononucleosis, muscular
dystrophy, fractures.
Lactic acid (lactate) (P)
9–16 mg/dl
(1.0–1.8 mmol/L)
Anaerobic tissue metabolism. Increased values in congestive heart
failure, shock, hemorrhage, strenuous exercise.
Osmolality (S)
280–300 mOsm/kg H
2
O
(280–300 mmol/kg H
2
O)
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased levels in hypernatremia,
dehydration, kidney disease, alcohol ingestion. Decreased levels in
hyponatremia, overhydration, and syndrome of inappropriate ADH
secretion (SIADH).
Phosphate (S) (phosphorus)
2.5–4.5 mg/dl
(0.8–1.5 mmol/L)
Parathyroid function; bone disease. Increased levels in
hypoparathyroidism, renal failure, bone metastasis, hypocalcemia.
Decreased values in hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia,
alcoholism, vitamin D deficiency, ketoacidosis, osteomalacia.
Potassium (S)
3.5–5.5 mEq/L
(3.5–5.5 mmol/L)
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased levels in renal disease,
Addison's disease, ketoacidosis, burns, and crush injuries.
Decreased levels in vomiting, diarrhea, Cushing's syndrome,
alkalosis, diuretics.
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