Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Blood Chemistry Studies
Carbon dioxide content
Arterial: 19–24 mEq/L
Venous: 22–30 mEq/L
Acid-base balance. Increased values in metabolic alkalosis and
respiratory acidosis. Decreased values in metabolic acidosis and
Carbon dioxide partial
Arterial: 35–45 mm Hg
Venous: 45 mm Hg
Values increased slightly in hyperventilation. Decreased values
(hypoxia) in pulmonary disease, hypoventilation, high altitude.
80–105 mm Hg
Increased values in metabolic and respiratory alkalosis. Decreased
values in metabolic and respiratory acidosis.
Metabolic function. Increased values in diabetes mellitus, Cushing's
syndrome, liver disease, acute stress, and acromegaly. Decreased
levels in Addison's disease, insulinomas.
Immune response. Increased levels in chronic infections, rheumatic
fever, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis. Decreased levels in
amyloidosis, leukemia, and preeclampsia.
Allergic responses. Increased values in allergic responses. Decreased
values in agammaglobulinemia.
Immune integrity. Increased values in liver disease, rheumatic
fever, chronic infection, inﬂammatory bowel disease. Decreased
values in immunodeﬁciency disorders and immunosuppression.
Immune integrity. Increased in autoimmune disease (e.g.,
rheumatoid arthritis), acute infections. Decreased in amyloidosis
Immune integrity. Increased values in myelomas.
Ketone bodies (S or P)
Fatty acid catabolism. Increased values (ketosis, ketoacidosis) in
starvation, low-carbohydrate diet, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus,
Tissue damage of organs or striated muscle. Increased in
myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, liver disease,
cerebrovascular accident, infectious mononucleosis, muscular
Lactic acid (lactate) (P)
Anaerobic tissue metabolism. Increased values in congestive heart
failure, shock, hemorrhage, strenuous exercise.
280–300 mOsm/kg H
(280–300 mmol/kg H
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased levels in hypernatremia,
dehydration, kidney disease, alcohol ingestion. Decreased levels in
hyponatremia, overhydration, and syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Phosphate (S) (phosphorus)
Parathyroid function; bone disease. Increased levels in
hypoparathyroidism, renal failure, bone metastasis, hypocalcemia.
Decreased values in hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia,
alcoholism, vitamin D deﬁciency, ketoacidosis, osteomalacia.
Fluid and electrolyte balance. Increased levels in renal disease,
Addison's disease, ketoacidosis, burns, and crush injuries.
Decreased levels in vomiting, diarrhea, Cushing's syndrome,