A-8
Appendix E
Periodic Table of the Elements*
Fe
26
55.845
IA
Representative
(main group)
elements
IIA
IIIB
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IVB
VB
VIB
VIIB
VIIIB
IB
IIB
IIIA
IVA
VA
VIA
VIIA
VIIIA
1
H
1.0079
3
Li
6.941
11
Na
22.990
19
K
39.098
37
Rb
85.468
55
Cs
132.905
87
Fr
223
88
Ra
226
39
Y
88.906
21
Sc
44.956
22
Ti
47.867
40
Zr
91.224
72
Hf
178.49
104
Rf
105
Db
73
Ta
180.948
41
Nb
92.906
23
V
50.942
24
Cr
51.996
42
Mo
95.96
74
W
183.84
106
Sg
107
Bh
75
Re
186.207
43
Tc
98
25
Mn
54.938
44
Ru
101.07
76
Os
190.23
108
Hs
27
Co
58.933
45
Rh
102.906
77
Ir
192.22
28
Ni
58.69
46
Pd
106.42
78
Pt
195.08
29
Cu
63.546
47
Ag
107.868
79
Au
196.967
30
Zn
65.38
48
Cd
112.411
80
Hg
200.59
31
Ga
69.723
13
Al
26.982
5
B
10.811
49
In
114.82
81
Tl
204.383
57
La
138.906
89
Ac
227
267
268
271
272
270
276
281
280
285
32
Ge
72.64
14
Si
28.086
6
C
12.011
50
Sn
118.71
82
Pb
207.2
33
As
74.922
15
P
30.974
7
14.007
51
Sb
121.76
83
Bi
208.980
34
Se
78.96
16
S
32.065
8
15.999
52
Te
127.60
84
Po
209
284
289
288
293
294
35
Br
79.904
17
35.453
9
18.998
53
I
126.905
85
At
210
36
83.8
18
39.948
10
20.180
2
4.003
54
131.29
86
N
O
Cl
F
Kr
Ar
Ne
He
Xe
Rn
222
109
Mt
56
Ba
137.327
38
Sr
87.62
20
Ca
40.078
12
Mg
24.305
4
Be
9.012
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
114
116
Representative
(main group)
elements
Transition metals
Periodic Table of the Elements
113
115
Uuq
Uuh
292
117
Uus
118
Uuo
Uut
Uup
Lanthanides
Actinides
58
Ce
140.116
90
Th
232.038
59
Pr
140.908
91
Pa
231.036
60
Nd
144.24
92
U
238.029
61
145
93
237.048
62
Sm
150.36
94
244
63
Eu
151.964
95
243
64
Gd
157.25
96
247
65
Tb
158.925
97
247
66
Dy
162.5
98
251
67
Ho
164.93
99
252
68
Er
167.26
100
257
69
Tm
168.934
101
258
70
Yb
173.054
102
259
71
Lu
174.967
103
Pm
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr
262
Rare earth elements
The periodic table arranges elements according to atomic number
and atomic weight into horizontal rows called periods and 18 verti-
cal columns called groups or families. The elements in the groups
are classified as being in either A or B classes.
Elements of each group of the A series have similar chemical
and physical properties. This reflects the fact that members of a
particular group have the same number of valence shell electrons,
which is indicated by the roman numeral of the group. For example,
group IA elements have one valence shell electron, group IIA ele-
ments have two, and group VA elements have five. In contrast, as
you progress across a period from left to right, the properties of the
elements change in discrete steps, varying gradually from the very
metallic properties of groups IA and IIA elements to the nonmetallic
properties seen in group VIIA (chlorine and others), and finally to the
inert elements (noble gases) in group VIIIA. This change reflects the
continual increase in the number of valence shell electrons seen in
elements (from left to right) within a period.
Class B elements are referred to as transition elements. All tran-
sition elements are metals, and in most cases they have one or two
valence shell electrons. (In these elements, some electrons occupy
more distant electron shells before the deeper shells are filled.)
In this periodic table, the colors are used to convey information
about the phase (solid, liquid, or gas) in which a pure element exists
under standard conditions (25 degrees Celsius and 1 atmosphere
of pressure). If the element’s symbol is solid black, then the element
exists as a solid. If its symbol is red, then it exists as a gas. If its sym-
bol is dark blue, then it is a liquid. If the element's symbol is green,
the element does not exist in nature and must be created by some
type of nuclear reaction.
*Atomic weights of the elements per IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, 2007.
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