A-3
CO
H
C
H
Ethanol
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Ketones
Carboxylic acids
Amines
Hydroxyl
Carbonyl
Carboxyl
Amino
H
H
O
OH
(or HO
)
(or H
2
N
)
C
OH
Sugars;
water-soluble
vitamins
Some sugars;
formaldehyde
(a preservative)
Some sugars;
“ketone bodies”
in urine (from
fat breakdown)
Amino acids;
proteins;
some vitamins;
fatty acids
Amino acids;
proteins;
urea in urine
(from protein
breakdown)
Where else found
Example
Name of compounds
General formula
Functional group
H
H
H
C
H
Acetone
H
H
C
H
H
C
H
C
H
Propanal
H
C
H
O
C
H
C
H
COOH
NH
2
O
O
C
H
O
H
C
H
Acetic acid
Methylamine
H
C
OH
O
H
C
H
H
N
H
H
C
OH
O
N
H
H
Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Appendix B
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