1062
UNIT 5
Continuity
27
and increasing risk for cardiovascular disease. Men experience
andropause with milder signs and symptoms of testosterone
deficit.
Menopause
(p. 1058)
6.
During menopause, ovulation and menstruation cease. Hot
flashes and mood changes may occur. Postmenopausal events
include atrophy of the reproductive organs, bone mass loss,
Multiple Choice/Matching
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
1.
Te structures that draw an ovulated oocyte into the female duct
system are
(a)
cilia,
(b)
fimbriae,
(c)
microvilli,
(d)
stereocilia.
2.
Te usual site of embryo implantation is
(a)
the uterine tube,
(b)
the peritoneal cavity,
(c)
the vagina,
(d)
the uterus.
3.
Te male homologue of the female clitoris is
(a)
the penis,
(b)
the scrotum,
(c)
the penile urethra,
(d)
the testis.
4.
Which of the following is correct relative to female anatomy?
(a)
the vaginal orifice is the most dorsal of the three openings
in the perineum,
(b)
the urethra is between the vaginal orifice
and the anus,
(c)
the anus is between the vaginal orifice and the
urethra,
(d)
the urethra is the more ventral of the two orifices in
the vulva.
5.
Secondary sex characteristics are
(a)
present in the embryo,
(b)
a result of male or female sex hormones increasing in amount
at puberty,
(c)
the testis in the male and the ovary in the female,
(d)
not subject to withdrawal once established.
6.
Which of the following produces the male sex hormones?
(a)
seminal glands,
(b)
corpus luteum,
(c)
developing follicles of
the testes,
(d)
interstitial endocrine cells.
7.
Which will occur as a result of nondescent of the testes?
(a)
male
sex hormones will not be circulated in the body,
(b)
sperm will
have no means of exit from the body,
(c)
inadequate blood supply
will retard the development of the testes,
(d)
viable sperm will not
be produced.
8.
Te normal diploid number of human chromosomes is
(a)
48,
(b)
47,
(c)
46,
(d)
23,
(e)
24.
9.
Relative to differences between mitosis and meiosis, choose
the statements that apply
only
to events of meiosis.
(a)
tetrads
present,
(b)
produces two daughter cells,
(c)
produces four
daughter cells,
(d)
occurs throughout life,
(e)
reduces the
chromosomal number by half,
(f)
synapsis and crossover of
homologues occur.
10.
Match the key choices with the descriptive phrases below.
Key:
(a)
androgen-binding protein
(e)
inhibin
(b)
estrogens
(f)
LH
(c)
FSH
(g)
progesterone
(d)
GnRH
(h)
testosterone
____ (1)
Hormones that directly regulate the ovarian cycle
____ (2)
Chemicals in males that inhibit the hypothalamic-
pituitary-testicular axis
____ (3)
Hormone that makes the cervical mucus viscous
____ (4)
Potentiates the activity of testosterone on
spermatogenic cells
____ (5)
In females, exerts feedback inhibition on the
hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
____ (6)
Stimulates the secretion of testosterone
11.
Te menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous
phases. Starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive
order is
(a)
menstrual, proliferative, secretory,
(b)
menstrual,
secretory, proliferative,
(c)
secretory, menstrual, proliferative,
(d)
proliferative, menstrual, secretory,
(e)
secretory, proliferative,
menstrual.
12.
Spermatozoa are to seminiferous tubules as oocytes are to
(a)
fimbriae,
(b)
corpus albicans,
(c)
ovarian follicles,
(d)
corpora lutea.
13.
Which of the following does not add a secretion that makes a
major contribution to semen?
(a)
prostate,
(b)
bulbo-urethral
glands,
(c)
testes,
(d)
ductus deferens.
14.
Te corpus luteum is formed at the site of
(a)
fertilization,
(b)
ovulation,
(c)
menstruation,
(d)
implantation.
15.
Te sex of a child is determined by
(a)
the sex chromosome
contained in the sperm,
(b)
the sex chromosome contained
in the oocyte,
(c)
the number of sperm fertilizing the oocyte,
(d)
the position of the fetus in the uterus.
16.
FSH is to estrogen as estrogen is to
(a)
progesterone,
(b)
LH,
(c)
FSH,
(d)
testosterone.
17.
A drug that “reminds the pituitary” to produce gonadotropins
might be useful as
(a)
a contraceptive,
(b)
a diuretic,
(c)
a fertility
drug,
(d)
an abortion stimulant.
Short Answer Essay Questions
18.
Why is the term
urogenital system
more applicable to males than
to females?
19.
Describe the major structural (and functional) regions of a sperm.
20.
Oogenesis in the female results in one functional gamete—the
egg, or ovum. What other cells are produced? What is the
significance of this rather wasteful type of gamete production—
that is, production of a single functional gamete instead of four, as
seen in males?
21.
Describe the events and possible consequences of menopause.
22.
Define menarche. What does it indicate?
23.
±race the pathway of a sperm from the male testes to the uterine
tube of a female.
24.
In menstruation, the stratum functionalis is shed from the
endometrium. Explain the hormonal and physical factors
responsible for this shedding. (Hint: See Figure 27.22.)
25.
Both the epithelium of the vagina and the cervical glands of the
uterus help prevent the invasion and spread of vaginal pathogens.
Explain how each of these mechanisms works.
26.
Some anatomy students were saying that the bulbo-urethral
glands of males act like city workers who come around and clear
parked cars from the street before a parade. What did they mean
by this analogy?
27.
A man swam in a cold lake for an hour and then noticed that his
scrotum was shrunken and wrinkled. His first thought was that
he had lost his testicles. What had really happened?
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
Gina Marciano, a 44-year-old mother of eight children, visited
her physician complaining of a “bearing down” sensation in
her pelvis, low backache, and urinary incontinence. A vaginal
examination showed that the external os of her cervix was just
inside the vaginal orifice and her perineum exhibited large
Review Questions
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