S Y S T E M
C O N N E C T I O N S
Homeostatic Interrelationships Between
the
Urinary System
and Other Body Systems
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Integumentary System
Chapter 5
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
Skin provides external protective barrier; site of water loss (via
perspiration); vitamin D synthesis site
Skeletal System
Chapters 6–8
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
Bones of rib cage provide some protection to kidneys; form
major store of calcium and phosphate ions
Muscular System
Chapters 9–10
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood; renal regulation of
K
1
, Ca
2
1
, and Na
1
content in ECF crucial for muscle excitability
and contractility
Muscles of pelvic diaphragm and external urethral sphincter
function in voluntary control of micturition; creatinine is a
nitrogenous waste product of muscle metabolism that must be
excreted by the kidneys
1013
26
Nervous System
Chapters 11–15
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood; renal control of K
1
,
Ca
2
1
, and Na
1
in ECF essential for normal neural function
Neural controls involved in micturition; sympathetic nervous
system activity triggers the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
mechanism
Endocrine System
Chapter 16
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balance of blood; produce erythropoietin; renal
regulation of Na
1
and water balance essential for blood pressure
homeostasis and hormone transport in blood
ADH, aldosterone, ANP, and other hormones help regulate renal
reabsorption of water and electrolytes
Cardiovascular System
Chapters 17–19
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood; renal regulation
of Na
1
and water balance essential for blood pressure
homeostasis. K
1
, Ca
2
1
, and Na
1
regulation maintains cardiac
excitability
Systemic arterial blood pressure is the driving force for
glomerular filtration; heart secretes atrial natriuretic peptide;
blood transports nutrients, oxygen, etc. to urinary organs
Lymphatic System/Immunity
Chapters 20–21
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
By returning leaked plasma fluid to cardiovascular system,
lymphatic vessels help ensure normal systemic arterial pressure
required for kidney function; immune cells protect urinary
organs from infection and cancer
Respiratory System
Chapter 22
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and long-term acid-base balance of blood
Respiratory system provides oxygen required by kidney cells
for their high metabolic activity; disposes of carbon dioxide;
rapid acid-base balance of blood; lung capillary endothelial cells
convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Digestive System
Chapter 23
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood; metabolize vitamin
D to the active form needed for calcium absorption
Digestive organs provide nutrients needed for kidney cell
health; liver synthesizes urea and glutamine to transport waste
nitrogen to the kidneys for excretion
Reproductive System
Chapter 27
Kidneys dispose of nitrogenous wastes; maintain fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
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