Fluid, Electrolyte, and
Acid-Base Balance
Body Fluids
(pp. 991–993)
Body Water Content (p. 991)
Fluid Compartments (p. 991)
Composition of Body Fluids
(pp. 991–993)
Fluid Movement Among Compartments
(p. 993)
Water Balance and ECF Osmolality
(pp. 993–997)
Regulation of Water Intake (pp. 994–995)
Regulation of Water Output
(p. 995)
Influence of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
(p. 995)
Disorders of Water Balance (pp. 995–997)
Electrolyte Balance
(pp. 997–1004)
The Central Role of Sodium in Fluid and
Electrolyte Balance (pp. 997–999)
Regulation of Sodium Balance
(pp. 999–1000)
Regulation of Potassium Balance
(pp. 1000–1003)
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate
Balance (pp. 1003–1004)
Regulation of Anions (p. 1004)
Acid-Base Balance
(pp. 1004–1012)
Chemical Buffer Systems (pp. 1004–1006)
Respiratory Regulation of H
(p. 1006)
Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base
Balance (pp. 1006–1009)
Abnormalities of Acid-Base Balance
(pp. 1009–1012)
Developmental Aspects of Fluid,
Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
(p. 1012)
ave you ever wondered why on some days
you don’t urinate for hours at
a time, while on others it seems like you void every few minutes? Or why on oc-
casion you cannot seem to quench your thirst? Tese situations reflect one of the
body’s most important functions: maintaining fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.
Cell function depends not only on a continuous supply of nutrients and removal of
metabolic wastes, but also on the physical and chemical homeostasis of the surrounding
fluids. Te French physiologist Claude Bernard recognized this truth with style in 1857
when he said, “It is the fixity of the internal environment which is the condition of free
and independent life.”
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